Smart City test bed

Smart City test bed


Bharadwaj Amrutur
(Principal Investigator)
Robert Bosch Centre for Cyber-Physical Systems
Electrical Communication Engineering
Yogesh SimmhanAssistant ProfessorComputational and Data Sciences
Rajesh SundaresanProfessorRobert Bosch Centre for Cyber-Physical Systems
Electrical Communication Engineering
Malati HegdePrincipal Scientific OfficerElectrical Communication Engineering


The Indian Government has identified Smart Cities as a priority area for development in the coming years. ICT will play a key role in supporting smart city solutions and more specifically, IoT technologies will be a key enabler for providing the “smarts”. The requirements from citizens in cities is diverse and cuts across many different verticals like transportation, water management, solid waste management, smart parking etc. Typically, each vertical will be addressed by a different vendor, who will provide an end-to-end solution. However it has been recognized of late, that a better approach might be to have a horizontal approach where in sensors, and other data are made available across different silos – in order to foster new, cost effective solutions to various city related problems and citizen needs. A simple example is that of a camera sensor which can aid in not only in surveillance but also in crowd management, smart parking, transit operations management etc. applications. Hence there is a need to develop smart city ICT/IoT framework as a generic platform that will support a diverse set of applications.  

The main thrust of this work will be to develop an instrumented test bed in the IISc campus, which will consist of a collection of sensors, gateways, middleware and server side software, supporting a few candidate applications of energy monitoring, water monitoring and solid waste management. The testbed will be a hybrid of real and virtual components. Being able to support such a hybrid system will enable us to test concepts at scales of real cities with 1000s of gateways and 10s of thousands of sensors, while the real world portion of the testbed will still be small and low cost.  The scaling limits will be determined via analysis of current and future requirements for Indian Smart Cities in terms of:

  • Data base size, query latency, IO/second, availability
  • Communication throughput, latency, loss tolerance
  • Gateway performance (throughput), memory, storage,
  • Sensor density per square kilometer and its data bandwidth

Finally the test bed will be validated via the physical portions instantiated in the IISc campus as well as the virtual portions instantiated to mimic a city of the scale of Bangalore. The concept of using light poles as smart city infrastructures will also be incorporated in the test bed via instrumenting about 10 light poles on the campus, with the gateways and sensors.

The aim of the test bed will be two-fold:

Allow for experimentation of different technologies at each level of the smart city solutions like:

  • Different sensor hardware and firmware stacks, including crowd sourced sensing
  • Different wireless front-haul schemes like WiFi, BLE, Sub-GHz
  • Different gateway hardware and software stacks to support distributed analytics
  • Different edge and cloud computing architectures
  • Different data persistence platforms including in-memory DB, time-series DB, and NoSQL
  • Different realtime and batch analytics platforms

Support for metrics at various levels from the sensors to the server, both in hardware and software to enable a quantitative assessment of the performance of various alternative approaches.

We believe that this activity will open up opportunities to explore new concepts like gateway virtualization, virtual agents, dynamic resource management, etc. in the second year onwards.

Project Publications


Rakshit Ramesh; Mukunth Arunachalam; Hari Krishna Atluri; Chetan Kumar; SVR Anand; Paventhan Arumugam; Bharadwaj, Amrutur

LoRaWAN for smart cities: experimental study in a campus deployment, Book Chapter

in for IoT, Book Chapter LPWAN Technologies; Applications, M2M (Ed.): pp. 327-345, Academic Press, 2020.

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Karanjkar, Neha; Tejasvi, Poorna Chandra; Amrutur, Bharadwaj

A simpy-based simulation testbed Presentation


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Babu, Arun; Thomas, Jithin Jose

Freestyle, a randomized version of ChaCha for resisting offline brute-force and dictionary attacks Journal Article Forthcoming

Journal of Information Security and Applications, 49 , Forthcoming.

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Poorna Chandra, Tejasvi

User story contest @ RabbitMQ Summit Presentation


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Ghosh, Rajrup; Simmhan, Yogesh

Distributed scheduling of event analytics across edge and cloud Journal Article

ACM Transactions on Cyber-Physical Systems, 2 (4), pp. 24:1-28, 2018.

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Amrutur, Bharadwaj; Darbari, Hemant

Final report on the project "Study of India appropriate technology (IoT) solutions for Smart Cities" Technical Report


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Ramesh, Rakshit; Acharya, Srikrishna; Rajaraman, Vasanth; Babu, Arun; Joglekar, Ashish; Sharma, Abhay; Amrutur, Bharadwaj; Namekar, Prashant

Interoperable middleware for smartcities - Streetlighting on LoRaWAN as a case study Presentation


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Joglekar, Ashish; Hegde, Balachandra

Online I-V Tracer for per string monitoring and maintenance of PV panels Conference

Proceedings of the 44th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON), 21.-23.10.18, Washington, D.C. (USA), 2018.

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Simmhan, Yogesh; Ravindra, Pushkara; Chaturvedi, Shilpa; Hedge, Malati; Ballamajalu, Rashmi

Towards a data‐driven IoT software architecture for Smart City utilities Journal Article

Software: Practice and Experience, 48 (7), pp. 1390-1416, 2018.

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Amrutur, Bharadwaj; Rajaraman, Vasanth; Acharya, Srikrishna; Ramesh, Rakshit; Joglekar, Ashish; Sharma, Abhay; Simmhan, Yogesh; Lele, Abhijit; Mahesh, Ashwin; Sankaran, Sathya

An open Smart City IoT test bed: Street light poles as Smart City spines Conference

Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Internet-of-Things Design and Implementation (IoTDI), 18.-21.04.17, Pittsburgh (USA), 2017.

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Chaturvedi, Shilpa; Tyagi, Sahil; Simmhan, Yogesh

Collaborative reuse of streaming dataflows in IoT applications Conference

Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on e-Science, 24.-27.10.17, Auckland (New Zealand), 2017.

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Varshney, Prateeksha; Simmhan, Yogesh

Demystifying fog computing: Characterizing architectures, applications and abstractions Conference

Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Fog and Edge Computing (ICFEC), 14.-15.05.17, Madrid (Spain), 2017.

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Zhou, Qunzhi; Simmhan, Yogesh; Prasanna, Viktor

Knowledge-infused and consistent Complex Event Processing over real-time and persistent streams Journal Article

Future Generation Computer Systems, 76 , pp. 391-406, 2017.

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Shukla, Anshu; Chaturvedi, Shilpa; Simmhan, Yogesh

RIoTBench: An IoT benchmark for distributed stream processing systems Journal Article

Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, 29 (21), 2017.

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Sharma, Abhay; Acharya, Srikrishna; Rajaraman, Vasanth; Ramesh, Rakshit; Babu, Arun; Amrutur, Bharadwaj

Schemas for IoT interoperability for Smart Cities Presentation


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Amrutur, Bharadwaj; Darbari, Hemant

Summary report on the project "Study of India appropriate technology (IoT) solutions for Smart Cities" Technical Report


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